2021-02-13T04:40:50.000-0500

Simcenter SCADAS
Simcenter Testlab

The need to experimentally and analytically determine the modes of vibration of structures and other objects was greatly advanced by the computer, digital data acquisition systems, and algorithm development.

A brief history of these developments:

- 1965 – James Cooley of International Business Machines (IBM) and John Tukey of Princeton publish a paper describing how to calculate a Fourier Transform on a computer.

It enjoyed wide adoption due to burgeoning use of analog-to-digital converters. It was called the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm due to its efficiency when using data points that were equal to numbers of the power of two (256, 512, 1024, 2048, etc).

- 1965 – Structural Dynamics Research Laboratory (SDRL) was established at the University of Cincinnati (UC). It was established as part of a United States Air Force contract to study machine tool chatter.

Under Professors David Brown and Randy Allemang, the SDRL advanced modal testing and analysis through research, seminars, and industry projects. The lab also collaborated with other universities including the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (KUL) in Belgium. Student exchanges to the laboratory made Skyline Chili well known in many parts of the world!

Website of the SDRL: http://sdrl.uc.edu

Several companies can trace their origins to the laboratory (see next section).

Website of the SDRL: http://sdrl.uc.edu

Several companies can trace their origins to the laboratory (see next section).

- 1967 – Doctor Jack Lemon, a member of the SDRL at the University of Cincinnati, forms the Structural Dynamics Research Corporation (SDRC) which eventually moved to Milford, OH (still a Siemens office location today).

SDRC became well known for I-DEAS (Integrated Design and Engineering Analysis Software). The software was used for Computer Aided Design (CAD), Computer Aided Engineering (CAE), and Computer Aided Testing (CAT). In 2007, SDRC became part of Siemens.

Want to know more about SDRC? Check out the history of SDRC file attached to this article.

Want to know more about SDRC? Check out the history of SDRC file attached to this article.

- 1968 – Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC) releases NASTRAN (NASA STRucture Analysis) software for general purpose structural analysis.

Years earlier, the National Aeronautics Space Agency (NASA) had noticed that each of its divisions was developing its own software code for structural analysis. The individual efforts were combined into a single software code (NASTRAN) for engineering analysis.

Solution 103 of NASTRAN is used to perform modal analysis (natural frequencies, mode shapes) of a structure.

Experimental and analytical mode shapes can be correlated with the Simcenter 3d suite. See the knowledge article: Correlation Simulation and Modal Test Results

Solution 103 of NASTRAN is used to perform modal analysis (natural frequencies, mode shapes) of a structure.

Experimental and analytical mode shapes can be correlated with the Simcenter 3d suite. See the knowledge article: Correlation Simulation and Modal Test Results

- 1973 – Piezoelectric accelerometers and impact hammers start to be produced en masse for the modal testing market.

These sensors incorporated Integrated Circuit Piezoelectric (ICP®) technology into their design. This allowed simplified wiring for modal testing. For example, accelerometers could be powered directly from a data acquisition system without requiring external amplifiers.

More about modal impact testing in this knowledge article: Simcenter Testlab Impact Testing

More about modal impact testing in this knowledge article: Simcenter Testlab Impact Testing

- 1982 - First International Modal Analysis Conference (IMAC) held in Orlando, Florida.

The IMAC conference is organized yearly by the Society of Experimental Mechanics (SEM).

The IMAC conference website is https://sem.org/imac

The IMAC conference website is https://sem.org/imac

- 1984 - Jan Leuridan, an exchange student of the Structural Dynamics Research Lab (SDRL), publishes his doctoral thesis at the University of Cincinnati: “Some direct parameter model identification methods applicable for multiple input modal analysis”.

In subsequent years, Jan goes on to incorporate cutting edge technologies for structural dynamics (and other disciplines) into Siemens Simcenter product line. He is named Siemens Innovator of the Year in 2020.

More about Jan Leuridan: Educating the Next Engineers’ Generation with Testing and Simulation

More about Jan Leuridan: Educating the Next Engineers’ Generation with Testing and Simulation

- 1984 – “Modal Testing: Theory, Practice and Application” is published by Professor David Ewins of the Imperial College in the United Kingdom.

The book covers the planning, execution, and analysis of modal testing. The book continues to be a reference for modal testing to present day.

- 1985 – At the 1985 International Modal Analysis Conference (IMAC) the HV Estimator for Frequency Response Functions (FRFs) is introduced in the paper “Vold, H., Crowley, J., Rocklin, G.: A comparison of H1, H2 and HV frequency response functions.”

The HV estimator (and others) helped the calculation of experimental FRFs in the presence of measurement noise.

More information in the article: What is a Frequency Response Function (FRF)?

More information in the article: What is a Frequency Response Function (FRF)?

- 1986 – General purpose computer workstation (UNIX based) with integrated data acquisition system are introduced. Data acquisition and analysis were historically performed on different devices previously.

Today, modal measurement equipment has a smaller profile and higher channel density: Simcenter SCADAS Mobile and SCADAS Recorder

- 1987 – Ground Vibration Testing continues to grow in popularity and sophistication for aero-elastic flutter testing for aircraft.

All commercial aircraft transporting passengers are required to be tested for aero-elastic flutter. This determines the safe operating speed range for the aircraft.

More about flutter and the required testing in this article: Ground Vibration Testing and Flutter Analysis

- 1995 – The paper “The Natural Excitation Technique (NExT) for Modal Parameter Extraction from Operating Structures” is published in the SEM International Journal of Analytical and Experimental Modal Analysis.

Instead of artificially applied forces, operational modal uses the force excitation responses of an object in use to estimate modal parameters like natural frequency, damping, and mode shapes.

More about Operational Modal: OMG! What is OMA? Operational Modal Analysis

More about Operational Modal: OMG! What is OMA? Operational Modal Analysis

- 1998 – Professor Peter Avitabile, of the Structural Dynamics and Acoustic Systems Laboratory of the University of Massachusetts Lowell, publishes the first “Modal Space Article”.

There are over one hundred Modal Space Articles which discuss various modal testing topics in detail.

These articles were originally published in Experimental Techniques by the Society for Experimental Mechanics and Blackwell Publishing.

The articles can be found on the University of Massachusetts Lowell website: Modal Space Articles

These articles were originally published in Experimental Techniques by the Society for Experimental Mechanics and Blackwell Publishing.

The articles can be found on the University of Massachusetts Lowell website: Modal Space Articles

- 2004 – The Polymax modal curvefitting algorithm is introduced in the Shock and Vibration Journal: “B. Peeters, H. Van der Auweraer, P. Guillaume, J. Leuridan, The Polymax frequency-domain method: a new standard for modal parameter estimation?”.

The Polymax algorithm was a collaboration between industry and academia. It was co-developed by Siemens and the University of Brussels (VUB).

The algorithm was well adopted by industry due to its clean and straightforward stabilization diagrams.

For more information on modal curvefitting and Polymax, see the article: Getting Started with Modal Curvefitting.

The algorithm was well adopted by industry due to its clean and straightforward stabilization diagrams.

For more information on modal curvefitting and Polymax, see the article: Getting Started with Modal Curvefitting.

- 2016 – The “Maximum Likelihood Estimation of a Modal Model” (MLMM) algorithm is published in the Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing Journal.

MLMM Modal Parameter estimator automatically iterates on the parameters of the initial modal model to optimize the fit between the synthesized FRFs from a modal model and the measured Frequency Response Function (FRF) data.

More about the MLMM method: Maximum Likelihood estimation of a Modal Model (MLMM)

More about the MLMM method: Maximum Likelihood estimation of a Modal Model (MLMM)

**Related Links:**

- Structural Dynamics and Vibration On-Demand Webinars
- Index of Testing Knowledge Articles
- Natural Frequency and Resonance
- Modal Testing: A Guide
- Simcenter Testlab Impact Testing
- Modal Impact Testing: Getting the Best FRF
- Modal Impact Testing: User Defined Impact Sequence
- What Modal Impact Hammer Tip Should I Use?
- Modal Testing: Driving Point Survey
- Modal Tips: Roving hammer versus roving accelerometer
- Attach Modal Shaker at Stiff or Flexible Area of Structure?
- Using Pseudo-Random for High Quality FRF measurements
- Multi Input Multi Output MIMO Testing
- Simcenter Testlab MIMO FRF Testing
- Ground Vibration Testing and Flutter
- What is Frequency Response Function (FRF)?
- Dynamic Stiffness, Compliance, Mobility, and more...
- How to Calculate Damping from a FRF?
- Simcenter Testlab: Rigid Body Calculator
- Getting Started with Modal Curvefitting
- Modal Assurance Criterion
- Correlating Simulation and Modal Test Results with Simcenter 3D
- Simcenter Testlab Modal Analysis: Modification Prediction
- Import CAD into Simcenter Testlab
- Animate CAD Geometry
- Alias Table: Mapping Test Data to Geometry
- Geometry in Simcenter Testlab
- Maximum Likelihood estimation of a Modal Model (MLMM)
- Simcenter Testlab: Multi-Run Modal Analysis
- What is Operational Modal Analysis?
- Performing Operational Modal Analysis in Simcenter Testlab
- What is an Operational Deflection Shape (ODS)?